Now we will write another Assembly program to Evaluate Z=((A-B)/10*C)**2.
Let’s identify variables needed for this program.
First variables will be the one which will hold the values present in the variables to be Evaluated and it will be A, B and C. Other variable will be holding the Output or Result of the Equation and it will be Z,So in all Four variables.
The identified variables are A, B, C and Z.
First Line – DATA SEGMENT
DATA SEGMENT is the starting point of the Data Segment in a Program and DATA is the name given to this segment and SEGMENT is the keyword for defining Segments, Where we can declare our variables.
Next Line – A DB 60
B DB 20
C DB 5
Z DW ?
We are initializing A to 60 (Blank or Nothing after number) stands for Decimal ( By Default) ), B to 20 ((Blank or Nothing after number) stands for Decimal ( By Default) ), C to 5 ((Blank or Nothing after number) stands for Decimal ( By Default) ), Z to ? (? stands for blank value). Detailed explanation is given below.
Next Line – DATA ENDS
DATA ENDS is the End point of the Data Segment in a Program. We can write just ENDS But to differentiate the end of which segment it is of which we have to write the same name given to the Data Segment.
Now, Selection of data type is DB data type the numbers which we are adding will be integers so DB is sufficient and Result of data type is DW data type which will hold product of equation, so DW is sufficient.
DATA SEGMENT A DB 60 B DB 20 C DB 5 Z DW ? ENDS
In Assembly programming, the variable are all defined by bytes only.
DB – Define Byte (Size – 1 Byte)
DW – Define Word (Size – 2 Byte)
DD – Define Double word (Size – 4 Bytes)
DQ – Define Quad word (Size – 8 Bytes)
DT – Define Ten Bytes (Size – 10 Bytes)
NUMBER SYSTEM in Assembly Programming is Decimal, Octal, Hexadecimal, Binary.
In the Program, We are entering the values for the variables and Do arithmetical Operations like Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication and Division So the Computer should understand which kind of Number is entered. Hence there is a different letters for different Number Systems. O or o stands for Octal, H or h stands for Hexadecimal, B or b stands for Binary, D or d stands for Decimal. By default type of numbering system is Decimal. If you do not specify any letter then the number is understood to be Decimal (By default).
DATA SEGMENT A DB 60 B DB 20 C DB 5 Z DW ? ENDS CODE SEGMENT ASSUME DS:DATA CS:CODE START: MOV AX,DATA MOV DS,AX MOV AH,0 MOV AL,A SUB AL,B MUL C MOV BL,10 DIV BL MUL AX MOV Z,AX MOV AH,4CH INT 21H ENDS END START
In this Assembly Language Programming, A single program is divided into four Segments which are 1. Data Segment, 2. Code Segment, 3. Stack Segment, and 4. Extra Segment. Now, from these one is compulsory i.e. Code Segment if at all you don’t need variable(s) for your program.if you need variable(s) for your program you will need two Segments i.e. Code Segment and Data Segment.
Next Line – CODE SEGMENT
CODE SEGMENT is the starting point of the Code Segment in a Program and CODE is the name given to this segment and SEGMENT is the keyword for defining Segments, Where we can write the coding of the program.
Next Line – ASSUME DS:DATA CS:CODE
In this Assembly Language Programming, their are Different Registers present for Different Purpose So we have to assume DATA is the name given to Data Segment register and CODE is the name given to Code Segment register (SS,ES are used in the same way as CS,DS )
Next Line – START:
START is the label used to show the starting point of the code which is written in the Code Segment. : is used to define a label as in C programming.
Next Line – MOV AX,DATA
After Assuming DATA and CODE Segment, Still it is compulsory to initialize Data Segment to DS register. MOV is a keyword to move the second element into the first element. But we cannot move DATA Directly to DS due to MOV commands restriction, Hence we move DATA to AX and then from AX to DS. AX is the first and most important register in the ALU unit. This part is also called INITIALIZATION OF DATA SEGMENT and It is important so that the Data elements or variables in the DATA Segment are made accessable. Other Segments are not needed to be initialized, Only assuming is enhalf.
Next Line – MOV AH,0
MOV AH,0 here, MUL instruction is used to multiply C with AX register later. Hence the unwanted value (garbage value) in AH register is removed by assigning ZERO to it. MOV AL,A move A variable value to AL Register.
Next Line – SUB AL,B
SUB AL,B means subtracting AL from B variable. Now, This will give (A-B). MUL C in this line C variable will be Multiplied with AX register (BY DEFAULT) in which we have value of (A-B) is present. Now, This will give ( (A-B)*C ).
Next Line – MOV BL,10
DIV 10 is not possible where 10 is immediate, So we have to move 10 to BL register (we can take any register) i.e. MOV BL,10 and Then DIV BL Now DIV BL will Divide AX register with 10 which is passed to BL register and Result of division is present in AL register. Now, This will give ( ( (A-B)*C) /10).
Next Line – MUL AX
MUL AX in this line AX register will be Multiplied with AX register (BY DEFAULT) in which we have value of ( ( (A-B)*C) /10) is present. Now, This will give ( ( ( (A-B)*C) /10)**2 ). MOV Z,AX is to move AX register to Z variable which will hold Result.
Next Line – MOV AH,4CH
The above two line code is used to exit to dos or exit to operating system. Standard Input and Standard Output related Interupts are found in INT 21H which is also called as DOS interrupt. It works with the value of AH register, If the Value is 4ch, That means Return to Operating System or DOS which is the End of the program.
Next Line – CODE ENDS
CODE ENDS is the End point of the Code Segment in a Program. We can write just ENDS But to differentiate the end of which segment it is of which we have to write the same name given to the Code Segment.
Last Line – END START
END START is the end of the label used to show the ending point of the code which is written in the Code Segment.
Note :- In this Assembly Language Programming, We have Com format and EXE format. We are Learning in EXE format only which simple then COM format to understand and Write. We can write the program in lower or upper case, But i prepare Upper Case.
Screen Shots :-
After Execution :-